Monday, September 30, 2019

Cost Sheet

We take this opportunity to thank Prof Jayesh Jain for giving us an insight , his valuable advice , timely suggestions and constant support throughout the project. We would also like to thank Mr. Raj Raut who is into the ice-cream business for the valuable information that he shared with us ,which proved to be very helpful while preparing the project ABSTRACT This project report is prepared to study the cost analysis of Amul ice cream and to formulate the cost sheet to find the per unit cost of a single Amul ice cream cup of 100 gm(fruit and nut). Our colleagues uncle also helped us in finding the various cost involved in manufacturing ice cream and we also got information from www. amulicecream. in.OVERVIEW OF ICE-CREAM INDUSTRY History:- The ice cream industry is mainly governed by the prevention of food and adulteration act (PFA)-1954 in India. The ice cream market growth picked up after de-reservation of the sector in 1997. History of Indian ice-cream industry is very old started in un-organized sector and mainly the popular product was kulfi. New technologies and freezers are the main force behind the development. Future is bright for ice-cream industry in India. Production –area:- In rural areas, kulfis / ice creams made by small / cottage industry are popular. The market for organized sector is restricted to large metropolitan cities.In small towns and villages, there are thousands of small players who produce ice- creams / kulfis in their home backyard and cater to the local market. Almost 40% of the ice creams sold in the country are consumed in the western region with Mumbai being the main market, followed by 30% in the north and 20% in the south. Industry Snapshot:- †¢ Market Size – 1200 Crores †¢ Ice Cream market is growing at 26% (yoy) Major players:- 1. Amul – Market Leader with share of 36% 2. HLL – Kwality Walls – 2nd biggest player 3. Mother Diary 4. Arun – Chennai Based Hatsun Agro Product Fe w Brands/ Target Consumers 1. Youth Centric – Chillz 2. Kids – Moo 3. Teenagers – Cornetto 4. Health Conscious – Amul Sugarfree & Pro-Life Future of Ice Cream Market in India:-Ice Cream market will expand with increase in number of malls. Also companies like – HLL has been increasing their ice cream outlets – Swirl. Few years ago consumers use to go out for walk after dinner and use to buy ice creams from hawkers. But now consumer who often visit malls for entertainment prefers to buy ice creams during different times of the day as it is visible upfront and feel like spending Rs. 50 for that tasty chocolate swirl with cake and nuts. As marketers are understanding the different needs of consumers, be it health conscious people- (Amul sugar free and pro-life ice-cream) , kids, youngsters, etc, and are coming up with products specific for them. with portfolio of flavors, consumer today has plethora of options at hand to choose from and therefor e high probability of buying one more scoop of ice cream.Also with increasing wallet size and innovative modern retail formats, it has definitely given a Philip to the ice cream industry in India. About the company Amul [pic] Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation:- Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is India's largest food products marketing organization. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products which are good value for money. Some statistics about the company:- The Turnover of Amul was Rs. 52. 55 billion in 2007-08. Members: |13 district cooperative milk producers' Union | | |2. 7 million | |No. of Producer Members: | | |No. of Village Societies: |13,141 | |Total Milk handling capacity: |10. 21 million liters per day | |Milk collection (Total – 2007-08): |2. 69 billion liters | |Milk collection (Daily Average 2007-08): |7. million liters | |Milk Drying Capacity: |626 Mts. per day | |Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity: |3090 Mts per day | AMUL –the brand:- Amul -the age old brand brand belongs to (GCMMF). AMUL means â€Å"priceless† in Sanskrit. The brand name â€Å"Amul,† comes from the Sanskrit word â€Å"Amoolya,† and was suggested by a quality control expert in Anand. Today Amul is a symbol of many things. Of high-quality products sold at reasonable prices. Of the genesis of a vast co-operative network.Of the triumph of indigenous technology. Of the marketing savvy of a farmers' organization. And of a proven model for dairy development. Various products under the brand name Amul :- Amul products have been in use in millions of homes since 1946. †¢ Amul Butter, †¢ Amul Milk Powder, †¢ Amul Ghee, †¢ Amul Cheese, †¢ Amul Chocolates, †¢ Amul Shrikhand, †¢ Amul Ice creams, †¢ Nutramul, Amul Milk and †¢ Amulya have made Amul a leading food brand in India. Some facts about the Amul ice cream:- †¢ Amul Ice Cream was launched on 10th March, 1996 in Gujarat. †¢ The portfolio consisted of impulse products like sticks, cones, cups as well as take home packs and institutional/catering packs. In 1997, Amul ice creams entered Mumbai followed by Chennai in 1998 and Kolkata and Delhi in 2002. Nationally it was rolled out across the country in 1999. †¢ Has combated competition like Walls, Mother Dairy and achieved the No 1 position in the country. This position was achieved in 2001 and it has continued to remain at the top.†¢ Today the market share of Amul ice cream is 38% share against the 9% market share of HLL, thus making it 4 times larger than its closest competitor. †¢ Amul’s entry into ice creams is regarded as successful due to the large market share it was able to capture within a short period of time – due to price differential, quality of products an d of course the brand name. Ice cream range:- Royal Treat Range – (Butterscotch, Rajbhog, Malai Kulfi †¢ Nut-o-Mania Range (Kaju Draksh, Kesar Pista Royale, Fruit Bonanza, Roasted Almond) †¢ Royal Treat Range – (Butterscotch, Rajbhog, Malai Kulfi) †¢ Nut-o-Mania Range – (Kaju Draksh, Kesar Pista Royale, Fruit Bonanza, Roasted Almond) †¢ Nature's Treat – (Alphanso Mango, Fresh Litchi, Shahi Anjir, Fresh Strawberry, Black Currant, Santra Mantra, Fresh Pineapple) †¢ Sundae Range- (Mango, Black Currant, Sundae Magic, Double Sundae) †¢ Assorted Treat – (Choco bar, Dollies, Frostik, Ice Candies, Tricone, Choco crunch, Megabite, Cassatta) †¢ Utterly Delicious – (Vanilla, Strawberry, Chocolate, Chocochips, Cake Magic) ost sheet analysis Direct Cost : | Direct materials | | | |To manufacture one ice cream cup below are the components or raw materials required with their unit cost : | Dry Fruits – 3 % Milk â⠂¬â€œ 70% Flavours – 5 % Other ingredients – 4 % Sugar – 16 % Cup – 2 % 1) Direct Labour : There are 17 workers employed in the production of the ice cream and each worker is paid Rs 2000 per month . 2) Direct Costs or expenses :The direct cost includes costs incurred in bringing the raw materials into the factory ie. Carriage inward. The raw materials are purchased every month and costs involved for carriage are Rs 1840. Indirect Costs: 1) Factory Overheads: The Factory Overheads includes the indirect labour, factory rent, insurance and depreciation on machinery, power, factory supervisor’s salary ,packing material, ware house expenses and other factory expenses. †¢ Indirect labour : This includes 3 sweepers whose average salaries are Rs. 1000 each. †¢ Insurance: The total insurance amount is Rs 15000. †¢ Break up of the total insurance amount for Machinery – 1200000 Land – 500000(1000 sq. ft. * Rs. 500 per sq. ft. ) à ¢â‚¬ ¢ Depreciation on machinery : There are 6 machines in the factory ,one machine is used for making ice creams which is Boiler and other are Refrigerators . The cost of Boiler is Rs 300000 and Refrigerators are worth of Rs. 900000. The depreciation method followed is SLM @ 7%. †¢ Power & Fuel: The monthly average cost of power consumption of the factory is Rs 42375. †¢ Supervisor’s salary : The factory has 2 supervisors and salary of each supervisor is Rs 2500. †¢ Cost of maintenance : oiling and cleaning of machinery and other miscellaneous expences for maintainance. 2) Office and administration overheads:-Office and administration overheads include office rent, salary to staff, office and general expenses, printing and stationary, telephone expenses, electricity and lightings †¢ Office rent: The per sq. ft rate of the Office is Rs 18. The area of the factory is 300 sq. ft. †¢ Salary to staff : the office staff has three employees. A peon, clerk a nd an Accountant and the salaries are Rs 800, Rs 2200 and Rs 4000 respectively. †¢ Office and general expenses: This comprise refreshments(tea and snacks). †¢ Telephone Expenses:- Calls made by the staff members. †¢ Electricity and lightings:- It consists of office lighting and air conditioning expenses. 3) Sales and distribution overheads:- Sales Commission : As a part of encouragement for sales people ,they are given commission of 2. 5 % of the total sales done by them.†¢ Discount allowed : To attract retailer to buy the product they are offered a discount of 5% on the selling price. †¢ Salary of salesmen : The company has 5 sales persons and they are paid a salary of Rs 3500 each per month. †¢ Carriage outward: To carry the finished goods to the whole sellers , the transportations charge per unit/product is set as Re 1. 24. Assumptions : †¢ The company produces only one product †¢ All raw materials consumed in production of ice cream †¢ The production and sales units are same. †¢ In Valuation of plant, the rate per square feet has been assumed at Rs. 00. †¢ We gave a discount to retailer on 450000 units on bulk purchase. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS: The amul ice-creams brand is one of the the top 3 brands . As it’s an Indian brand its popular as a family brand. Its available in all metropolitan cities and is in the reach of middleclass &above middleclass . Its available in many flavours and most of these are Indian flavours –liked by Indians. They are available in various sizes. They are available in reasonable prices. They have launched brands such as sugar free probiotic ice-creams. There are many premium varieties. It’s got good food energy value i. e calories per 100ml-196. 7. WEAKNESS:The durability of amul ice-creams is not really good, it melts very soon. It does not have many outlet centers. Not a famous brand among youngsters who are the main customers of ice-cream. OPPORTUNITI ES: They can come up with new flavours which would be able to attract the youth .They should not restrict themselves to departmental stores infact come with new luxury brands which can be available in hotels and they should come up with their own ice-cream parlours. They should focus more on their advertising and marketing strategies. They should use a strategy similar to what they used in case of butter (Utly butterly girl ). They should come up with offers for purchase of ice-cream in whole market .Offers should run all throughout the year; not only in winters. There should emphasis for special occasions. THREATS : The biggest threat for amul ice-cream industry would be its competitors. Its ranked 3rd in the Indian market . It faces tough competition from the unorganized sector as well. A slight change in the price of the ice-cream would shift its customers to another brand. Foreign players like Baskin- Robbins entering Indian market with new premium brands at feasible prices. [pi c] Bibliography www. amulicecream. in www. google. co. in Annual report of Amul Cost accounting and financial management-Ravi kishore –edition 5 ———————– THREATS OPPORTUNITIES WEAKNESS STRENGTHS

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Osmoregulation in Fish Essay

Osmosis in the movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. It occurs from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. The control of water balance in animals is known as osmoregulation. Osmoregulation is a homeostatic mechanism. The body fluids of a salt water fish are hypotonic (higher in water concentration) compared with the surrounding sea water – the sea water is therefore hypertonic. Because of this they constantly lose water by osmosis through its selectively permeable gill and gut membranes. To replace its loses and maintain its water balance, the fish drinks the sea water. The chloride secretory cells in the gills of the fish actively secrete the excess salt – gained from drinking the sea water – back out into the sea by an energy requiring process known as active transport, against a concentration gradient. The kidneys of salt water fish only contain a few small glomeruli, which results in a low filtration rate of blood and only a small volume of urine being formed. In addition, salt water fish convert their nitrogenous waste to a non-toxic form, trimethylamine oxide, which requires minimum amount of water for its removal. Over millions of years of evolution, fresh water fish have adapted to carry out osmoregulation. The body fluids of a fresh water fish are hypertonic compared with the surrounding water and therefore they constantly gain water by osmosis. Fresh water fish gain water through the lining of their stomach and their gut – the same as salt water fish. In order to maintain a water balance, fresh water fish have to constantly remove excess water. Their kidneys possess a number of adaptations which make the constant intake of water easy to cope with; their kidneys possess many large glomeruli allowing rapid filtration of the blood and the tubules reabsorb mineral salts from the glomerular filtrate back into the bloodstream, resulting in a large volume of very dilute urine. Using chloride secretory cells in their gills, fresh water fish area able to actively uptake mineral salts from the water which are lost in the urine.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Compare & Contrast Edgar Allen Poe's The Tell Tale Heart and The Fall Essay

Compare & Contrast Edgar Allen Poe's The Tell Tale Heart and The Fall of the House of Usher - Essay Example â€Å"†¦found myself, as the shades of the evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher. I know not how it was - but, with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit. †¦I looked upon the scene before me - upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain - upon the bleak walls - upon the vacant eye-like windows - upon a few rank sedges - and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Baym/Poe, 1553) Against this gloomy background we are introduced to the narrator who remains nameless as is the narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart. In typical Gothic fashion The Fall of the House of Usher’s narrator introduces a striking contrast. He is about to enter the gloomy house with a view to bringing some cheer to his friend, Roderick Usher’s melancholic mood. (Byam/Poe, 1553) True to Gothic form Poe has succeeded in introducing us to a subliminal element. This is a subliminal element in that the reader will not hesitate to latch onto as a false sense of security, expecting brightness and a cure to the malady afflicting Roderick Usher. This is a typical technique of Gothic writers. (Punter, 116) The Gothic element of fear is set up in a different way in The Tell-Tale Heart. The narrator first introduces us to fear that has been instilled in him as a result of the physical condition of an old man’s eye which he described as: â€Å"One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture -- a pale blue eye with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me my blood ran cold, and so by degrees, very gradually, I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever.†(Baym/Poe, 1589) Both tales describe madness in a similar nature. Although in The Fall of the House of Usher, madness is viewed as a malady to be cured while in The Tell-Tale Heart madness is viewed with optimism. Usher who is a hypochondriac complains of having an over sensitivity to sight and sound

Friday, September 27, 2019

To what extend has govermental policy been a factor in explaining each Essay

To what extend has govermental policy been a factor in explaining each country's development trajectory - Essay Example This can be shown with historical evidence beginning from the development of Britain as an industrialised nation due to the colonisation policies of the time to the current mandates of the IMF and the World Bank which are supposed to help developing nations. Admittedly, it can be said that certain situation and policies might be forced upon some nations and not really accepted by the government therefore calling them government policy is rather an obtuse notion. However, it must be realised that the sovereignty of a government is not infringed upon simply because it has been given some recommendations by the United Nations or other international bodies who aim to help the country in need. Therefore, any policies established or created by the government have to be seen according to the letter of the law which makes it government policy. During the age of colonisation, the British Empire ruled an area over which the sun never set. The government policy of expansion and increased utilisation of colonies like the Americas and India certainly helped the economic and social development which took place at home. The input gained from commerce, farming and export of material to the American continent was the fundamental reason that led to the industrial revolution and the growth of Britain as a powerhouse amongst its European neighbours. A detailed record of the relationship between the American colonies and the homeland of Britain shows that the conquest of the Americas can be taken as a founding mechanism and a cornerstone of the industrial revolution that took place in Europe (Hamilton, 1929). Credit must also be given to the scientific development which was slowly taking shape in those times as well as the philosophical changes to the concept of government, but without the governmental policy to support colonisation efforts; such

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Statement of purpose Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Statement of purpose - Essay Example Since then I have been interested in the field of business. I take pleasure in gaining knowledge of every aspect of the business world and I am highly eager to learn more and become an expert in the field of business and management. I believe that after completion of a graduation, the certification of post-graduation is essential as it prepares individuals towards achieving their goals in the ever-changing business environment1. During the tenure of my working in the company, I had participated in several presentations based on business related topics. Also my work involved marketing, coordination and booking activities. I also try to update my knowledge by reading business magazines and newspapers to have the knowledge on the current affairs in the business world. I truly enjoy leading and managing teams, a reason why I feel I would perform well in an organization if I am given a chance to lead others in the team. Back in my country, there is a huge competition among males and females for better job and education. My father had always supported me to pursue my career. The course of MBA would provide me with greater opportunities and exposure in the corporate world, and get to meet other managers and different customers, a work life that would make me strong and independent. I believe that the course of Master’s degree from an University abroad to my nation would not only help me to prepare myself further for my career but would also make me capable of managing work and life together being an independent woman having a strong personality which is the manner I always wanted to carry myself. Staying abroad and learning more on the field of business would make me eligible to be successful in my career and life and make my parents proud of me and make me feel special in my country. To end my statement of purpose I would like to present my wish to get certified for the post-graduation course in business and management from the College of Business

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Mixture and compound Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Mixture and compound - Essay Example A compound comprises of a fixed ratio, for example, in water, there are two hydrogen molecules for every oxygen molecule. In mixtures, the ratios of the individual elements vary, depending on the use of the mixture. A mixture is also only composed of the constituent element, and the properties of the mixture are those of the individual elements (Phillips, 1998). A compound on the other hand, is a new substance with new chemical properties, e.g. common salt, a white compound, does not bear any resemblance to sodium, a grey metal, or chlorine, a greenish-yellow gas (Phillips, 1998). To distinguish a mixture from a compound, use their chemical properties (Patten, 1995). A mixture retains the properties of the individual substance that are part of its composition. For example, air is a mixture of gasses and is has properties of all the gasses, e.g. it supports burning, a chemical property of oxygen gas as other elements in the air do not support burning (Patten, 1995). Compounds have an all together different set of chemical properties from those of the constituent elements (Phillips, 1998). It is not possible to tell the chemical composition of a compound without a chemical test, unlike a mixture. Therefore, changes in color, chemical properties and physical properties are the distinguishing factors between compounds and mixtures (Phillips, 1998). When elements combine to form compounds, different types of bonds hold their atoms together (a bond is the energy that hold the atoms in a compound together), covalent, ionic, dative and metallic bonds (Pettifor, 1995). Covalent bonds exist between two non-metallic elements such as oxygen and carbon. When carbon burns in the air, a chemical reaction occurs, leading to the formation of carbon dioxide. Due the bond between these two elements is a dative bond (a special form of the covalent bond). A chemical reaction between two non-metals leads to the formation of a covalent bond (Pettifor, 1995). Due to an almost full out er energy level, non-metals do not lose electrons in a reaction; instead, they share the electrons in the outermost rings to form octets in the case of oxygen and carbon (Sebera, 1964). When a metal reacts with a non-metal, the metal donates the electrons in its outermost shell to the non-metal. That way, both atoms have complete shells in their outermost energy levels. In ionic bonding, the metal acquires a positive charge due to more protons than electrons in an atom while the non-metallic atom acquires a negative charge. These two opposite charges attract, holding the compound strongly together. While the covalent bond is strong between the atoms involved, the resultant structure I held by weak Van der Waals forces of attraction, which explains why ionic compounds lean to have a higher melting point than covalent compounds (Sebera, 1964). To achieve stability, elements need their outermost energy levels filled with electrons (Pettifor, 1995). For metals, their outermost energy le vels are comprised of a maximum of three electrons e.g. in aluminum. Elements with four electrons are non-metals , but some of them such as silicon and carbon have metallic properties, e.g. graphite, an allotrope of carbon conducts electricity, a property of metals (Sebera, 1964). In chemical reactions, it is easier to dislodge the few electrons in the outer shell than to gain electrons needed to fill the outermost

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Plaease answer four questions that are in the assignment Coursework

Plaease answer four questions that are in the assignment - Coursework Example The diarthrodial joint between the forearm and humerus allows a hinge movement with the help of their lubricating fluid for the adduction and abduction movements to be possible (Tortora, 2008). Part 2: As the individual drinks water, the liquid enters the mouth passing through the esophagus to the stomach. From the stomach, the water travels to the small intestines while it begins to be absorbed in the stomach through diffusion and osmosis. The water is carried to the blood stream to continue its travel to the renal system. It is filtered out of the blood because of gradient pressure and carried to the renal artery to reach the glomerulus. Leaving this body part, the blood’s next destination is the Bowman’s capsule. From here, the water traverses the kidney tubule to approach the collecting tubules. However, not all waste fluid may arrived at the next stop because important substances still has to be reabsorbed back to the blood (Wagman, 1992). The rest which are waste products continue their journey to the collecting tubules until they enter the renal pelvis where they will spend some of their time. The waste liquid referred to as urine is slowly collected to the bladder to be expelled out of the body when it reaches its maximum amount via the ureters.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Proposal Argument PRATICAL PROPOSAL offering a solution to a local Essay

Proposal Argument PRATICAL PROPOSAL offering a solution to a local problem - Essay Example Add to the fact that women no matter in whatever position they work in are considered objects of titillation. What this leads to in some cases is sexual abuse physically and mentally. "BANGALORE(India): Being the largest BPO hub in the world, over 200 domestic, multinational, captive and pure-play companies in Bangalore employ two lakh call centre executives, of which women account for 50%. Like sounding a rousing call alarm I come to learn of a ghastly act committed on one of those members of the carefree lot. Utmost disbelief and fear gripped me as I read of the rape and murder of a 28-year-old city woman BPO worker in the same city. This is not the first instance that we come to hear of the exploitation of a working woman, sexually or otherwise. A woman has always been considered weak, meek and powerless. She has been imagined as an object of sexual and erotic fantasy and men have tried to exploit the fairer sex more often than not. On thinking a lot about the predicament the solutions I could think of include, as the old dictum goes, "Self defence is the best defence". Physical protection does not always mean exertion, stamina or endurance. Simple but effective methods of martial arts can stand her in good stead in moments of extreme danger. A focused effective kick with minimum exertion and maximum reflex can be used by a woman for self ammunition. Here martial arts techniques like Karate, Kung-fu, Kick boxing et al can be useful. At times self- defence training can prove to be lifesaving in prevention of rape, incest and sexual abuse. ALTERNATE PROPOSAL: Sometimes danger may take one off guard. Especially in the case of women working in night shifts as our newspaper article pointed out. The minimization o physical abuse and danger is taken care of with the use of technology and constant monitoring. An example to illustrate this point is the case of Chennai-based Perot Systems BPS India. They purpotedly have introduced a global positioning system on vehicles used for the transportation of women workers in their company. This is a foolproof system for the safety of women working late hours, the company officials claim.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pearl Harbor in relation to Mission Command Structure Term Paper

Pearl Harbor in relation to Mission Command Structure - Term Paper Example Closely following is the authority and capacity to issue actionable commands within the chain of command in order to accomplish a mission. Team building is a very critical part of every mission because every soldier’s life is put in the hands of others in the course of accomplishing a mission as well as ensuring the teams survival. This need to ensure its own survival by humans led to the formation of groups mainly along family and clan lines. The modern military is a more organized structure with in societies that ensures the survival of their people groups and their interests. In an effort to function efficiently these groups developed structures that ensured its survival and order. Pearl Harbor is a classic example of nations fighting for resources in an effort to further its interests and betterment. Groups in primitive societies merged with other similar groups to increase their capacity to increase in wealth (Black). The same thing still happens to date even after these groups had fully evolved into kingdoms and nations. There their defense systems also evolved into national armies as fighting groups were consolidated into one centralized and formal fighting group. These formal fighting groups fought on behalf of their societies and in return were rewarded with payment in terms of money, recognition and honor. Pearl Harbor was a high and glorious moment in history for the Japanese while it was a low one for the Americans, which plunged both countries into World War II. The success of the Japanese was however short-lived as it did not plan and strategies to destroy the whole naval base which cost them a lot. Many nations have gone into war in an effort to procure the better good of their citizens while many others have forced by circumstances beyond their control to participate in wars. Command therefore originates from

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Foreign Policy Judiciary Politics Essay Example for Free

Foreign Policy Judiciary Politics Essay 1. Although the power of the national government increased during the early republic, these developments often face serious opposition. Compare the motives and effectiveness of those who opposed the growing power of the national government in TWO of the following: Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-1799 Hartford Convention, 1814-1815 2. To what extent did the Jeffersonian Republican’s of economic boycott in the years 1807 – 1812 affect the new nation? 3. To what extent was the early United States foreign policy a primarily defensive reaction to actual or perceived threats from Europe? Evaluate with regard to United States foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from 1789 – 1815. 4. Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establishing a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution John Adams Thomas Jefferson George Washington 5. Explain the influence of TWO of the following on the U.S. decision to go to war in 1812. Embargo policies of Jefferson and Madison British impressment of American seamen Settlers’ conflicts with Native Americans Expansionist goals of the war hawks 6. Compare and contrast the political and economic views of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans. When, why and how did the differences between the two parties blur? 7. Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790s. 8. Since the treaty of Ghent addressed none of the issues for which the United States had fought, the War of 1812 has no positive consequences for the American nation. Assess the validity of this statement 9. To what extent was the Election of l800 aptly named the Revolution of l800? Respond with reference to 2 of the following areas Economics

Friday, September 20, 2019

Report on Modernising Social Services

Report on Modernising Social Services Introduction The â€Å"Modernising Social Services† report (Secretary of State for Health 1998) concerns New Labour’s policy for improving social services that emphasises the important role this plays in helping people deal with personal crisis and life-changing events. In this report, social services were criticised for not previously meeting public expectations in key areas including: Inconsistencies in provision across the country. Inefficiencies in effective use of financial budgets. A lack of public awareness of what services should be available by whom. Insufficient safeguards to protect vulnerable children. Failures in co-ordination where, for example, local authorities disagreed on which body should be responsible for care. Inflexibility as regards individual needs and circumstances. To rectify these deficiencies, the report recommended improvements in all the areas listed. For example, with the elderly, this was to involve awarding payments directly to those aged 65 and over, thus promoting greater personal control as well as reshaping services to initiate greater independence and reduce inactivity. A long-term care charter was also to be introduced to further individual needs with assessments to gauge customer satisfaction. Children’s services were to be improved by introducing robust new inspection regimes for care with a national register to prevent undesirable individuals from working and coming into contact with children. Similar safeguards were to be introduced for the mentally ill. To achieve the required standards, new qualifications and training of staff were to be introduced and legislation enacted to improve liaison between various relevant bodies such as health and social services. An annual government report was to be established monitoring s ervice delivery by both local authorities and social services with action taken where standards failed to meet requirements. To finance these changes, annual funding was to be raised by 3.1 per cent per annum over three years and a Social Services Modernisation Fund inaugurated where funds were to be focussed on key areas. The report hoped that these initiatives would lead to real improvements in services covering all the sectors specified leading to a restoration of the public’s confidence but concluded that this modernisation would be a long term process of which the report represented just one step towards attaining significant improvements during the early part of the 21st century (section 8.1 and 8.2). Previous policy towards social care Although the health service had been comparatively successful in improving health up until the beginning of the 1980’s, it became a victim of its own success as those cured of present illnesses became ill at an older, more vulnerable, age (Glasby, 2007 p. 33) leading to greater pressure on social services in general. To offset the spiralling costs, the Thatcher government, which came to power in 1979, thus moved away from care provided by government bodies to a system based more on self reliance predicated on the notion that the demands of welfare was affecting the UK economy (Alcock 1996). This led to various market-based reforms in response two reports (Griffiths 1983, 1988) where integrated management structures were recommended at all levels of both the NHS and social services where the emphasis was to be on efficiency. In addition, the amount of funding available for the NHS reduced and ways were implemented to improve efficiency and service provision that culminated in a government White Paper (Dept. of Health 1989a) that saw the introduction of the internal market and the purchaser/provider divide. Similarly, in social care, social service departments were to both plan and organize community care with local authorities acting as purchases of the different care facilities available a scheme that has been criticised for transferring the increasing government budget onto local authorities despite the apparent aim of the Caring for People reforms (Dept. of Health 1989b) that sort to empower individuals by providing greater choice. The extent of the government’s limited response to these and other recommendations can be gauged by Griffiths (1992) the author of the two Griffiths’ reports criticism of the lack of positive action. The government’s policy was also criticised because, with a shift of responsibility to families, voluntary organizations and individuals themselves, a means was provided whereby privatisation could be pro moted and free care reduced (Baggot 2004, p.276). The result of these policies was that by 1989 the share of private and voluntary organizations had expanded to cover half the long term provision for care of the elderly. Moreover, those reforms introduces as a result of the Griffiths Report led to defensive management and reduced morale among professionals working in social care during the 1990’s (Baggot 2004 p. 279). Policy under New Labour With the election of New Labour in 1997 a â€Å"third way† was offered as a means of bridging the divide between right-wing reliance on market forces and the more socially driven attitudes of the left. This culminated in the 1998 report on social care that came out of the Labour parties wish for â€Å"joined up government† that endeavoured to link the various agencies together, especially services to do with health and social welfare – two departments that had previously operated as relatively separate entities (Glasby 2007, p. 7). Thus, interagency working became one of the main areas of concern after 1998. The reality, however, seems to indicate that there were important changes as well as continuities with previous policies (ibid p. 36). Thus, there was an undertaking to stay within previous spending limits but the internal market was abolished. Later, however, spending limits were broken with large increases in expenditure and the internal market was replaced with a similarly functioning primary care commissioning system. In this respect, the government expressed the wish to build only on that which had previously proved effective (Dept. of Health 1997). One policy that continued accordingly involved the closing of large institutions that helped to deinstitutionalise the attitudes of inmates and staff (Baggot 2004). The policy of community care was hence strengthened whereby individuals from groups such as the mentally ill, the elderly, those with learning difficulties, etc., were given more say in decisions about care and the various options for living in the community or at home. Glasby (ibid), however, has criticised the concept of community care because, although facilities became more human in scale and community oriented, they still tended to be institutional in outlook with the previous ethos in relation to providers and users continuing to prevail well into the 21st century. In addition, up to 2001, there were still obvious disp arities in delivery of policies across local authorities. Despite this negativity, government publications such as â€Å"Valuing People† (Dept. of Health 2001) had, at least, shifted emphasis by highlighting the main issues. The trend whereby the independent sector took charge of residential and nursing homes continued, however, to the extent that nearly all commercial and voluntary organizations now came under independent control a trend also reflected in home care where independent involvement had increased to about fifty per cent by 2002 (Baggot 2004, p.282). The tendency towards more central government control in monitoring social care and the integration of services also continued but there were strong criticisms as regards the regulation of care homes (Fahey et al 2003). A series of regulatory acts during from 2000 onwards, however, attempted to remedy this situation (Baggot 2004, p. 292) and a performance framework was introduced with a â€Å"Best Value† system to gauge efficiency that was later censured for emphasising cost over quality. Conclusion Although there have been many recommendations for change to social services since the 1980’s, the application of these to the real world has been piecemeal and often influenced by political expediency. The move towards independent provision during the Conservative period, although well intentioned, led to a cutback in funding with problems concerning standards and monitoring with the move towards care in the community leading to difficulties of integration of services across providers and communication between professional groups. With the arrival of New Labour, the policy of care in the community continued with attempts at greater integration, improvement of standards, and increased monitoring leading to different levels of success. Regional variations in provision continued and the rhetoric was not always met with real change that may be a consequence of the fact that long-standing attitudes continued to influence actual policy. Moreover, the move towards care in the communi ty has still not been matched by corresponding high quality services or adequate liaison between professional groups and providers to the extent that the aims of the â€Å"Modernising Social Services† report still remain to be achieved. Ultimately, it seems a paradox continues to exist between an approach where people are regarded as citizens having equal rights to service that is opposed to the alternative whereby individuals are viewed as customers with the right to choose a â€Å"product†. Continuing tensions relating to this dichotomy may be the source of ongoing shortfalls in provision that have led to ongoing problems with regard to local health and social service integration. Nevertheless, as the report on â€Å"Modernising Social Services† has emphasised, improvements to the system were expected to be a gradual stepwise process which seems to be confirmed by the various measured enhancements in services to date. Bibliography Alcock, P. Social Policy: Themes and issues. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Baggot, R. 2004. Health and Health Care in Britain. Palgrave: Houndmills. Dept. of Health. 1989a Working for patients. HMSO: London. Dept. of Health. 1989b Caring for people. HMSO: London. Dept. of Health. 1997. The new NHS: Modern, dependable. The Stationary Office: London. Dept. of Health. 2001. Valuing People: A new strategy for learning disability for the 21st century. The Stationary Office: London. Fahey, T., Montgomery, A., Barnes, J. and Protheroe, J. 2003. Quality of Care for Elderly Residents. in Nursing Homes and Elderly People Living at Home: Controlled Observational Study. British Medical Journal. 326. pp. 580-583, Glasby, J. 2007. Understanding Health and Social Care. The Policy Press: Bristol. Griffiths R. 1983. NHS management inquiry (The Griffiths Report). DHSS: London. Griffiths, R. 1988. Community care: Agenda for action (The Griffiths Report). HMSO: London. Griffiths, R. 1993 Seven years of progress – general management in the NHS. Health Economics. 1 (1): pp. 67-70. Secretary of State. 1998 Modernising Social Services – Promoting independence. Improving protection. Raising standards. The Stationary Office: London.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Working with families is difficult and complex. Essay -- Social Issues

Working with children, young people and their families can be seen as difficult and complex for many different reasons. However, before these topics can be discussed and explored fully, it is important to completely understand the difference between the words ‘difficult’ and ‘complex’. ‘Difficult’ implies that things are not easily or readily done, where it requires much effort much effort, labour and skill to be performed effectively. In the same way, ‘complex’ implies a hard to deal with situation, but also involves many interconnected parts or complicated arrangements that consist of emotional attachment. Social work is rarely working with one individual, as stated in O’Loughlin and O’Loughlin (2008); it will involve working with the whole family which is constantly changing making it complex and diverse. It may consist of parents or carers who share the same race, class, culture, or sexuality, but alternatively it may not. Members within the family help to determine our behaviour, roles, rules and stereotyping. To add to this, people are constantly entering and leaving the family system either by marriage, divorce or death. These complexities are shown in ecomaps or genograms. It is important to understand that the child’s welfare is paramount, but in order to achieve positive outcomes for the child, effective work will need to be done within the family. Relationships within a family are known as a system with the family being viewed as a whole, rather than as many individuals. Within family relationships, everyone seeks to uphold the equilibrium so if one member seeks to change, the others seek to resist. However, difficulties include maintaining good relationships and knowing boundaries between professional and personal... ...children, young people and their families can be both complex and difficult. Social work practice is one of the most challenging as it involves work with a diverse range of both professionals and service users. However, there is more that one single reason for this. As all professionals, agencies and parents continue to work together in various different cases, a variety of skills are required including: communication, preparation, intervention skills, assessment of significant harm, research of current legislation and decision making skills, all of which contribute to the complexities and difficulties of social work. It could be argued that these difficulties are highlighted most in many public cases of child abuse; moreover these cases can be seen to be changing social work practice, affecting the difficulties and complexities of working within this profession.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin Essay -- Uncle Toms Cabin

Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe was born on June 14, 1811. Her father was Lyman Beecher, pastor of the Congregational Church in Harriet’s hometown of Litchfield, Connecticut. Harriet’s brother was Henry Ward Beecher who became pastor of Brooklyn’s Plymouth Church. The religious background of Harriet’s family and of New England taught Harriet several traits typical of a New Englander: theological insight, piety, and a desire to improve humanity (Columbia Electronic Library; â€Å"Biography of Harriet Beecher Stowe†). Harriet studied and assisted as a teacher at the Western Female Institute, a school in Hartford, Connecticut, that her sister Catherine had founded. Harriet moved with her father to Cincinnati, Ohio, as a result of her father’s religious appointment. Harriet’s career as a teacher ended when she married widower Calvin Stowe. Across the river from Cincinnati was Kentucky, where Calvin Stowe’s home was located. Kentucky was a slave state, and Harriet was able to experience firsthand the horrors of slavery. Also, Harriet’s new home with Stowe was a â€Å"station† along the â€Å"underground railroad†, and Harriet had even more experience and interaction with the slaves. Harriet had always been creative as a child, and she loved to write. Her anger toward slavery in addition with encouragement from her sister-in-law to â€Å"use her skills to aid the cause of abolition† (Wells) inspired Harriet to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Well s; University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee). Harriet began to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin as a serial, or an episodic story. These episodes were published in the National Era, a national newspaper in which Harriet had previously published several abolitionist serials. Harr... .../>. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. â€Å"Stowe, Harriet Beecher†. Date of Last Revision Unknown. 6 Jan 2002. . Mark, Mary. â€Å"Harriet Beecher Stowe†. Date of Last Revision Unknown. 5 Jan 2002. . Thornton, Tracey. â€Å"Between Rhetoric of Abolition and Feminism: Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin†. 1998. 8 Jan 2002. . University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. â€Å"The Classic Text: Harriet Beecher Stowe†. 19 Nov 2001. 5 Jan 2002. . Wells, Kim. â€Å"Harriet Beecher Stowe†. 28 Aug 1999. 6 Jan 2002. .

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Free Hamlet Essays: Hamlets Numerous Problems :: The Tragedy of Hamlet Essays

Hamlet's Numerous Problems Hamlet's problem is not exact; it cannot be pinpointed. In fact, Hamlet has numerous problems that contribute to his dilemma. The first of these problems is the appearance of King Hamlet's ghost to his son, Hamlet. Hamlet's morality adds a great deal to his delay in murdering the current king, Claudius. One of Hamlet's biggest drawbacks is that he tends to think things out too much. Hamlet does not act on instinct; however, he makes certain that every action is premeditated. Hamlet suffers a great deal from melancholy; this in turn causes him to constantly second guess himself. The Ghost is the main cause of Hamlet's melancholy. Also, Hamlet's melancholy helps to clear up certain aspects of the play. These are just a few of the problems that Hamlet encounters throughout his ordeal. The last of Hamlet's problems stem from his relationships with the people close to him. Hamlet suffers from an Oedipus complex. Hamlet's relationship with Ophelia also causes him grief. All of the problems that Hamlet encounters make him question nobility. These ideas all add to the lack of haste in Hamlet's murder of Claudius. The appearance of the ghost to Hamlet causes him much confusion. As Dodsworth states, "Hamlet regards the Ghost as eminently 'questionable' (43), that is, 'which invites question' as Jenkins has it, but more pertinently 'uncertain, doubtful'"(Dodsworth 58). Hamlet does not know whether or not to listen to the ghost. If it is indeed the ghost of Hamlet senior Hamlet is obligated to follow his orders, "It is as he is flesh of his flesh that Hamlet is bound (by 'nature') to act on his father's behalf" (Dodsworth 59). In conclusion, the appearance of the eminently is the beginning of Hamlet's problems. Morality is the next big challenge that Hamlet faces. Hamlet needs to morally justify the murder of the king to himself before he can go through with it, "Hamlet was restrained by conscience or a moral scruple; he could not satisfy himself that it was right to avenge his father"(Bradley 80). This idea connects directly with the idea that Hamlet thinks too much. Although Hamlet does not act on instinct; he does understand what it is telling him to do, "Even when he doubts, or thinks he doubts, the honesty of the Ghost, he expresses no doubt as to what his duty will be if the Ghost turns out to be honest" (Bradley 80).

Monday, September 16, 2019


I have is of when I went to Montreal, Canada, to visit my family on my dad's side. It was around the first week of August of 2007, and was my first trip to Canada. Along with going to Montreal, Canada, we also went to Quebec City, Canada, the only city in North America that has stone walls bordering It. We flew In an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed In my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there.My uncle's name Is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we et his daughter named Felicia, and his two twin sons named Tristan and Zachary. Once we were settled in In their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went shopping. We then went back home to eat the homemade spaghetti that Charles' wife, Isabella, had made. After, we decided to have a fashion show for all of the kids of the clothes we had bought earlier that day. Later at night, all of the kids got together and slept in one room and p layed super Moral Brothers against each other on our Nintendo Deeds.During the next couple of days, my family and I also got the chance to explore Quebec City, Canada as well. I got to learn about the Chateau Forefront, a historic and popular hotel which opened in 1893, and the world's most photographed hotel. Quebec City was also filled with fascinating centuries-old architecture and historic sites. While I was there, I saw horse-drawn carriages on the street, street entertainers, and artists working on the street. Also, Quebec City streets were filled with several stores and boutiques that I went to that were filled with souvenirs, paintings, and clothes.At night time, the city was filled with stringed lights, and it was one of the most picturesque places that I have ever seen. To conclude, going to Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, and visiting my relatives was the happiest memory that I have ever had. I treasured going there so much and meeting my family for the times we spent t ogether, for the things I got to learn, and for the places I go to go to. I haven't seen my relatives in Canada or been to Montreal or Quebec City since 2007. Although, this summer, I am going with my family to return there once again and to see my relatives for a long awaited seven year reunion.I will never forget my trip to Canada In 2007, and I can't Walt to make new memories this summer when I return! Narrative By peaches_n_cream it. We flew in an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed in my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there. My uncle's name is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we Once we were settled in in their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went together and slept in one room and played Super Mario Brothers against each other reunion. I will never forget my trip to Canada in 2007, and I can't wait to make new Narrative I have is of when I went to Montreal, Canada, to visit my family on my dad's side. It was around the first week of August of 2007, and was my first trip to Canada. Along with going to Montreal, Canada, we also went to Quebec City, Canada, the only city in North America that has stone walls bordering It. We flew In an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed In my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there.My uncle's name Is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we et his daughter named Felicia, and his two twin sons named Tristan and Zachary. Once we were settled in In their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went shopping. We then went back home to eat the homemade spaghetti that Charles' wife, Isabella, had made. After, we decided to have a fashion show for all of the kids of the clothes we had bought earlier that day. Later at night, all of the kids got together and slept in one room and p layed super Moral Brothers against each other on our Nintendo Deeds.During the next couple of days, my family and I also got the chance to explore Quebec City, Canada as well. I got to learn about the Chateau Forefront, a historic and popular hotel which opened in 1893, and the world's most photographed hotel. Quebec City was also filled with fascinating centuries-old architecture and historic sites. While I was there, I saw horse-drawn carriages on the street, street entertainers, and artists working on the street. Also, Quebec City streets were filled with several stores and boutiques that I went to that were filled with souvenirs, paintings, and clothes.At night time, the city was filled with stringed lights, and it was one of the most picturesque places that I have ever seen. To conclude, going to Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, and visiting my relatives was the happiest memory that I have ever had. I treasured going there so much and meeting my family for the times we spent t ogether, for the things I got to learn, and for the places I go to go to. I haven't seen my relatives in Canada or been to Montreal or Quebec City since 2007. Although, this summer, I am going with my family to return there once again and to see my relatives for a long awaited seven year reunion.I will never forget my trip to Canada In 2007, and I can't Walt to make new memories this summer when I return! Narrative By peaches_n_cream it. We flew in an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed in my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there. My uncle's name is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we Once we were settled in in their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went together and slept in one room and played Super Mario Brothers against each other reunion. I will never forget my trip to Canada in 2007, and I can't wait to make new Narrative I have is of when I went to Montreal, Canada, to visit my family on my dad's side. It was around the first week of August of 2007, and was my first trip to Canada. Along with going to Montreal, Canada, we also went to Quebec City, Canada, the only city in North America that has stone walls bordering It. We flew In an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed In my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there.My uncle's name Is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we et his daughter named Felicia, and his two twin sons named Tristan and Zachary. Once we were settled in In their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went shopping. We then went back home to eat the homemade spaghetti that Charles' wife, Isabella, had made. After, we decided to have a fashion show for all of the kids of the clothes we had bought earlier that day. Later at night, all of the kids got together and slept in one room and p layed super Moral Brothers against each other on our Nintendo Deeds.During the next couple of days, my family and I also got the chance to explore Quebec City, Canada as well. I got to learn about the Chateau Forefront, a historic and popular hotel which opened in 1893, and the world's most photographed hotel. Quebec City was also filled with fascinating centuries-old architecture and historic sites. While I was there, I saw horse-drawn carriages on the street, street entertainers, and artists working on the street. Also, Quebec City streets were filled with several stores and boutiques that I went to that were filled with souvenirs, paintings, and clothes.At night time, the city was filled with stringed lights, and it was one of the most picturesque places that I have ever seen. To conclude, going to Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, and visiting my relatives was the happiest memory that I have ever had. I treasured going there so much and meeting my family for the times we spent t ogether, for the things I got to learn, and for the places I go to go to. I haven't seen my relatives in Canada or been to Montreal or Quebec City since 2007. Although, this summer, I am going with my family to return there once again and to see my relatives for a long awaited seven year reunion.I will never forget my trip to Canada In 2007, and I can't Walt to make new memories this summer when I return! Narrative By peaches_n_cream it. We flew in an airplane from Portland, OR to Providence, RI, and then we drove from there to Montreal, Canada. We stayed in my dad's brother's home for the time that we were there. My uncle's name is Charles, and once we first arrived at his house, we Once we were settled in in their house, we went out to the mall nearby and went together and slept in one room and played Super Mario Brothers against each other reunion. I will never forget my trip to Canada in 2007, and I can't wait to make new

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Healthy Personality: Ability to Adapt Change and Handle Stress

The road to a healthy personality is like a road itself. It has many curves and blind corners. Ones ability to adapt to this constantly changing road is one of the most important components of a healthy personality. That is, the ability to adapt to a changing world. Another important component is the ability to handle stress. We are just beginning to find out what stress does to our bodies and minds, and most of it is not good. Some other components I will discuss are having a good self-concept and everything that encompasses self . Our world is constantly changing and putting different pressures and demands on us. We have to adapt to many new kinds of stressors resulting from evolution alone. Time is changing constantly and that brings on new situations we need to cope with. When a person can adapt well, they have less stress and in general have a healthier personality. Adapting gives us the means to survive. It provides us with shelter, food, and a competitive edge. Without these things its hard to survive. There are people like this too. Some people, whether it be circumstantial or relative, just do not have what it takes to make it these days. These people usually do not have a healthy personality. It would be hard to even think about what a healthy personality is like. The ability to adapt gives us access to the resources needed for lives essential biological needs, which in turn allows us to think deeper about our state of mind and relationships with others. The way we handle stress and how we react to it plays a big role in the development of a healthy personality. To go out into the world not prepared to handle stress would be like going into war with no ammo in the guns. You would not last very long in either situation. There is no denying the fact that all of have stress to deal with. I'm not going to tell you or anyone else what I'm going through. You don't need to hear it and I don't like hearing it from other people. What it comes down to is how one deals with their individual stressors. Psychological hardiness comes into play here. If you are a psychologically hardy person, stress may be a foreign word to you. On the other hand if you are not a psychologically hardy person you will have a very good idea of what stress is. Psychological hardiness, to me, is the act of actively knowing you have stress and using three simple guidelines to deal with that stress. Those three are commitment, control, and challenge. These three things are very important in stress management. Especially in comparison to other ways of stress management like substance use, withdrawal, or defense mechanisms. While these things temporarily relieve the effects of stress they usually are short lived or have negative consequences attached to them. If you commit yourself to do something you are actively staying involved in that activity. This helps you to set goals and achieve them. Challenge is taking a stressful situation and turning it into a challenge instead of some situation you just have to deal with. When you take on something it doesn't quite seem the same as a stressful situation. The situation may be very stressful, it's all about the attitude one takes on before going into a certain situation. Finally control can aid in stress relief. When people feel that they are in control they have an easier time dealing with whatever situation they are in. If you feel that you are in charge of your life and the decisions you make and the attitudes you take on are your own you will have an easier time dealing with stress. These are not the only ways of dealing with stress. There is Albert Ellis's concept of controlling stressful thoughts. Ellis says that what we think is directly correlated to what we feel. His theory includes concepts like catastrophizing thoughts and irrational beliefs. These things are hard to detect, but I think we all do them. Irrational beliefs and catastrophizing thoughts are negative feelings about situations you feel stress in. An example would be thinking you have to act a certain way to get the approval of others in a social setting, or thinking that there is nothing that you could possibly do in a situation. The main point in dealing with stress that Ellis is trying to make is realizing that we all have these negative thoughts and beliefs. When something happens to us, Ellis called this event the activating event, we have consequences that follow. In between those two events is when the belief or thought will take place. An example would be if you lose your job, activating event, you will have negative consequences. A lot of people would add in a catastrophizing thought like â€Å"that job was everything to me† or â€Å"I'll never find a job as good as that one†. When we do that it makes it easier to look at our failures and concentrate on them instead of trying to fix them. It also makes it easier to become depressed or anxious. People get in the habit of using these beliefs and thoughts over time and have a hard time breaking there habits. My final component to a healthy personality is a collaboration of several different theories. They all have to do with how we perceive ourselves and how we feel about ourselves. Individual theories that will be discussed are self perception, the self concept, self esteem, and ideal self. I feel that all of these things are closely related and tied together very intricately. They are reflected within each other and none could really be complete without the others. Self perception is an ongoing and constantly changing view of what we are. It can be broken down into three major components, they are: the physical self, the social self, and the personal self. The physical self is the bodies we walk around in and the unique features each of them possess. Our physical appearance has an enormous effect on a healthy personality. Some people tower over others and some, like me, wish they had a few more inches. Some people are physically more beautiful than other people, and in turn get more attention for their appearance. Other people are ridiculed for their appearance. How people deal with their physical self has a lot to do with a healthy personality. For example if a young girl really wants to be a model, but is not cut out to be one, the realization that she will not be a model will have a profound effect on her personality. Perhaps she will take on negative attitudes about her body and appearance. Maybe those attitudes will develop into false beliefs that people, including her, are somehow not as valuable unless they are beautiful. You can also look at it from the other end, perhaps a very beautiful young lady develops negative feelings about unattractive people. And those feelings develop into beliefs that she is better than everyone else and the most beautiful person on earth. How we deal with the fact that we are constantly being judged and evaluated on our physical appearance has a profound effect on personality. The social self is the many different masks and roles we play in social and home settings. You might play the role of a sophisticated gentleman at a fancy Christmas party, or the role of a brother, sister, mother, father, or child within a household. How we use these different roles and masks has an effect on our personality. What if you went to fancy Christmas parties in wholly jeans and a t-shirt? You would probably be looked down upon. And if you did that all the time, that is use the wrong social masks in the wrong situation, it would affect your personality negatively. The personal self is the part of you that nobody else knows. It is the constantly changing feeling of being yourself, with always changing emotions, attitudes, and feelings. The personal self includes our names and self concept. Our names do have a small effect on our personality. They can change others perception of us, which can lead to many different things, but for the most part peoples names do not have a profound impact on personality. A self concept is an impression or concept of yourself. It is a collaboration of personal traits you feel are important, and your own impression on how you stack up to these traits. Your self concept can have positive and negative impacts on your personality. If you have a very rigid view on what values you should have and you do not live up to them you could consider yourself not worthy. It can lower your self esteem, which is another closely related concept. Self esteem is approving of yourself. It is respecting yourself as a valuable person. Self esteem is said to form in childhood when parents either show conditional or unconditional love. This can have a profound affect on personality. People with lower self esteem tend to be depressed more and are shown to be more susceptible to suicide. Flip side of the story, people with high self esteem tend to live happier lives with overall healthier personalities. Concepts of how we ought to be is our ideal selves. This is all the traits we think we should be full of. Things like compassion, honesty, or it can be things like physical appearance, height, and hair color. The closer we actually are to what we think we should be correlates to ones self esteem. That is, the closer we are, the higher our self esteem. If we think we are not up to par with ourselves it can lower self esteem. Our concept of self is a very intricate and delicate web of emotions and outside pressures we need to keep tabs on. The concepts in this essay are a lot like car accessaries. You can add new shiny paint to show of its physical appearance and you can add snow tires to adapt to different road conditions in the future. What we do to our vehicles that we have is up to us. We have the innate ability to change our surroundings and ourselves. That is why a lot of these components are related. If we feel like we have low self esteem we can start exercising to feel better, which will in turn allow us to be physically fit. Physical fitness will allow us to feel less stress about being overweight or lazy, and that in turn will allow us to concentrate on adapting to our natural surroundings.

The Seeds of Discouragement

The seeds of discouragement in work with young people INTRODUCTION Discouragement by definition is the act of or instance of being discouraged, the state of being discouraged or something that discourages. In other words it is simply the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles. Young people may become defiant or hard if seeds of discouragement are sown into their lives especially during their childhood years. This essay will seek to demonstrate how discouragement can be used positively by a child and youth care worker (CYCW) to try to help the youths they work with develop positively.It will discuss how CYCW behaviors encourage or discourage youths by addressing the four ecological hazards linked to the profiles of discouragement. The 10D’s of deviance will be explained and then it will further explain what the impact of personal theories of behavior can be. This paper will conclude by looking at what the impact on assessment will be if the child or young person feels disc ouraged by his or her interactions with the CYCW. CYCW’s are in daily contact with children and young people and they assume a very large and important role in their lives.Gannon (1990) suggests that they interact, observe and spend a lot of time with them hence they know them and their ways very well. Gannon (1990) further suggest that CYCW’s represent children and youth, share their hopes and aspirations for the future as mature, responsible and independent adults. A CYCW can use discouragement in a positive way so as to try to develop appropriate behaviors and attitudes by discouraging them from engaging in dangerous and negative activities that can affect their growth, development and achievements.This can be achieved by focusing on transitions within their environments instead of concentrating on the negative traits of troubled children. Four ecological hazards which are destructive relationships, climates of futility, learned irresponsibility and loss of purpose can be used to address this. Destructive Relationships Children affected by this hazard are for example those children who are unclaimed or rejected by their families. Their needs are failed to be met by their caretakers.This usually leads children to lose the ability of being able to create meaningful and real attachments with anyone. They feel like outcast and in most instances those in foster homes are moved constantly from one home to another. Stout & Kipling (2003) suggested that those who practiced detachment effectively distanced themselves from the source of hurt, whether by â€Å"shutting down,† not speaking or hearing or joking and laughing about the source of pain. They end up being involved in delinquency such as stealing, drugs use and abuse and even prostitution. Some end up having suicidal thoughts.Ackerman (2012) suggests that one of the elements of reclaiming discouraged youths is by earning their trust therefore the CYCW can discourage this negative behavior by gaining trust and building a meaningful relationship with these children. By this they can be influential in the children’s lives, discourage them from negative activities and behaviors and correct and comment them when their behavior is unacceptable. Climates of Futility This ecological hazard consists of children who fear failure because they feel inadequate. It looks at achievement or mastery.Grose (n. d) suggests that most children like adults can be stung by discouragement and if they receive enough of it, their self-esteem takes a dive and they begin to take fewer risks for fear of being criticized for making mistakes. These children are seen as ignorant and arrogant. A rather negative, cynical and pessimistic approach does not work because negative discouragement by a CYCW can lead to negative futility being breed. Punishing them can also lead these children to be more difficult as boredom may be the main cause of them following destructive paths.They are unmotivat ed, give up easily and avoid risks hence the CYCW should discourage these traits and encourage them to focus on their strengths, be creative, persistent and motivated in what they do. This can be achieved by creating non-threatening environments and having experimental activities that involve social engagement by teaching those concepts and not facts. Mentoring and teaching them accountable cooperative learning can discourage them from engaging in the negative activities they were once involved in or might get involved in as a sense of a future and purpose is created. Learned ResponsibilityThis ecological hazard consists of children who are rebellious and defiant as they try to mask their sense of powerlessness. This in most cases leads these children to join gangs in search of a feeling of belonging. Another reason for these gangs to be created is for these children to look for loop holes and go against authority. This is because their needs are not being met by the existing social structures. This may lead to drug and alcohol abuse, theft, prostitution and even killings. Responsibility cannot be learned because of these negative and destructive ways that would have been learnt.CYCW’s can discourage these children from gangs by teaching them to become independent, self-sufficient, responsible and self-disciplined. This can help these children from refraining themselves from negative and bad ways of living as they would be obedient to authority, respect social responsibility and have self-control by having inner values. Loss of Purpose It is portrayed by self-centered youth in search of meaning in this world that is full of confusing values. Many of these children end up using drugs on the street corners if they are poor or in their mansions if they are rich.Regardless of their different backgrounds and social statuses, these children find it hard to develop a sense of own value if they do not have the opportunity to be of value to others. Instead they become affectionless, selfish, bullies and narcissistic. The CYCW should use discouragement of drugs taking and self-centeredness in order to encourage them to be caring, loyal, sharing, generous, empathetic and supportive. This in turn helps children learn to be responsible, courageous, do things for others and be hooked on helping, create attachments to other people and have empathy for the condition of those who are less fortunate. 0 D’s of Deviance The 10 D’s of deviance on approaches to difficult children help us understand how a problem is viewed by adults and what typical responses that often follows. It shows the link between naming a problem and the typical responses that often follows. There are ten D’s of deviance but only three are going to help explain the link between the naming of the problem and the typical responses that follow. Looking at the educational theory, children are often viewed or the problem is always named as them being disobedient. The typical responses are that the child can be reprimanded, corrected or expelled from school.Argyris (1958) states that studying human behavior in schools as in organizations involves ordering and conceptualizing a buzzing confusion of simultaneous existing, multilevel mutual variables. So it may not be the case that the child is being disobedient but simply looking for attention as there might be things that would be troubling the child and they might not know how to express themselves. This is seen in children who bully other children as they usually come from broken and abusive homes where they might have been or are being abused.Expelling the child will not help anything but instead the best response is to try to get help for the child by counseling and protecting them. Redshaw (2011) suggests that from establishing a caring and nurturing therapeutic environment, focusing on developing their personal strengths, interests and talents, providing intensive support for targeted b ehaviors, to ensuring that day? to? day practices around discipline and corrective guidance are focused on teaching and treating, rather than punishment.The special education theory suggests that children are labeled as being disabled and the following responses are likely to be segregation or remediation of the child. In medieval times disabled children were seen as a curse and were usually killed at birth. Segregating the child will only further damage the child psychologically and emotionally. Instead resources at the adults’ disposal should be used to develop the child based on their needs and condition so that they can become independent. The folk religion states that children are labeled to be possessed by a demonic being.The response that would follow was an exorcism, chastise or the child being banished. Possession might not be the case as the child might be having psychological or behavioral disorders that require a different approach to cure or treat them. At times it is not necessary to label children as being possessed before ruling out every other alternative because the whole exorcism process will traumatize the child especially is it does not work. Positive Personal Theories of Behavior These theories try to explain how behaviors attributed by challenges faced by and the positive traits of the youth affect them leading them to take certain actions.Cognition esteeming labels show positive traits which the youths possess such as being strong, competent and worthy. These positive traits affect the youths positively as they get affection and attraction. They feel wanted and in turn reciprocate the feeling. They most likely get involved in activities that help them grow and develop. They are able to create attachments and hence the chances of them disassociating from the world are low since they have mentors such as the CYCW’s who help shape their character on positive ways. They are nurtured and empowered with positive skills that will help them aspire in life.Empathizing labels make them feel like they are being rejected, discouraged and frustrated. This affects them because they become concerned and they sympathize about being labeled like that. They use this for the positive as they defriend those people who bring negative things in their lines or they may be encouraged to work harder at trying to be better than those people that discourage, frustrate and reject them. We are all different, and a lot of people believe in themselves and use this negativity to their advantage if they are in the care of caring CYCW’s, mentors or guardians who will help them channel it in a positive way.On the other hand the negativity can depress, unmotivated and bring a child down because of its discouraging and frustrating manner. In conclusion assessment will become difficult if a children or a young person feels discouraged by their interactions with a CYCW. This is because discouragement will only encourage the same ol d behaviors to be maintained and therefore the CYCW might not be able to assess the child properly as they will still be blocked out by the child. Assessment requires creating an attachment, opening up to each other and feeling comfortable around each other.Even though assessment is affected negatively if the child feels discouraged by the CYCW, the CYCW can pick up some of the negativity in the child’s behavior and speech or even by how they will be interacting. WORDS (1831) References: Ackerman, R. J. 2012. Developing Resilience and Achievement Skills in High Adolescents: Victory or Violence Conference. Lexington, KY, July 11, 2002. Argyris, C. 1958. Some problems in conceptualizing organizational climate: A case study of bank. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(4): 501-520. Brandton, L. K. & Brokenleg, M. 2002. Reclaiming Youth at Risk: Our Hope for the Future. Bloomington, Indiana: National Education Service. Gannon, B. 1990. Staying sane as a child care worker. The Chil d Care Worker. 8(4): 10-12 Grose, M. (N. d). How to Help your Child at Sport Without Embarrassing them or yourself: Our Kids. A newsletter for Parents. Redshaw, S. 2008. Meeting the needs of children and young people in care: What is the ethical response? Australian College for Child and Family Protection Practitioners, Stamford Grand, Adelaide. Redshaw, S. 011, theurapeutic Residential Cre Porgram: Model of Practice. Sanders, M. R. 1992. Every parent: A positive approach to children's behaviour. Sydney: Addison? Wesley Publishing Company. Seita, J. R. 2006. Troubled but talented: Finding hidden strengths. Reclaiming Children andYouth, 14(4): 194? 195. Stout, M. D. , & Kipling, G. 2003. Aboriginal people Resilience and the Residential School Legacy. Ottawa, Ontario: Anishinable Printing Walsh, J. , & Aubry, P. 2007. Behavior management through adventure. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 16(1): 336? 339.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Racism affects everybody Essay

This is shown in the movie ‘Australia’, how everyone can be affected by racism. Many different ways of racism towards people in the movie ‘Australia’. A few of the main characters that are affected in the movie is Nullah, The Drover, Lady Ashley. The people that are being most affected in the movie would have to be the indigenous, that’s because the time the movie was set in, was when the white australia policy was happening, so pretty much every Australian was being racist towards aboriginal people. Racism is problem that everybody is affected in the world today. In the movie Australia, all the aboriginal people was being well behaved, did everything they was told and followed the rules. Even then people was still be racist towards them. Some of the ways racism was shown in the movie was how the aboriginals wasn’t allowed in the pubs, also Neil Fletcher was using Daisy for sex and didn’t show any respect and also beat her and his son up. So pretty much all the Australians in this time period was against all indigenous people and all japanese because at the time australia was at war with japan and japan ended up bombing darwin. Nullah in the movie was a half cast, so he wasn’t fully aboriginal or australian, he felt left out because he wasn’t black or white, he was only a creamy colour. He was like this because of Neil Fletcher using his mother for sex. Nullah and his mother wasn’t treated with any respect at all and both of them was also beat up, it was because Neil fletcher played a big part in being racist towards Indigenous people. A good example of racism towards Nullah is when he is about to get on the ship to the mission and a young australian boy was yelling to him and saying â€Å"Creamy† and kept saying that to Nullah. Near the end of the movie Nullah wants to go ‘walk about’ with his Grandfather. If you go on this ‘walk about’ It means you become a man, it’s part of the aboriginal tradition, even though Nullah isn’t a full blooded aboriginal, he still wants to keep live by his aboriginal culture and follow the aboriginal tradition and become a man through the true aboriginal way. The reason all this racism was happening towards the aboriginal people was because of the government. They had made a policy in the australia called the white australia policy, this policy wanted australia to only have fully white blooded australians in australia only. The half cast kids like ‘Nullah’ was sent to a mission to learn about the christianity and how australians live, the other reason they were sent there is because australian people wasn’t proud of having sex with aboriginal women and then they didn’t want half cast kids in the public because it would remind them of what they did with those aboriginal women and they didn’t want that. So the government made missions where, the half cast kids were taken from their families by the police and wasn’t allowed to see their families again. The kids that were taken when they were are now called the stolen generation. The two people in the movie that weren’t being racist towards aboriginal people was The Drover and Lady Ashley, this was because they both had a connection with the aboriginal people in the movie, The Drover’s partner in the movie was an aboriginal and The Drover felt like he was an aboriginal and thought that people treated him like one. He also sticked up for his partner at the pub, this shows how close Drover was to his partner. Lady was close to aboriginal people because of Nullah’s mother dying and she took up mothering for Nullah, this made a strong connection between them. When Neil Fletcher was beating up Nullah Lady Ashley stepped in and protected Nullah. In conclusion, It doesn’t matter if someone is being racist towards an individual, it will affect other people to. Even all the years ago, when the white australia policy was taking place, the racism towards the aboriginals and the stolen generation, It is still affecting most of Australia today and a lot of people are sorry to the stolen generation because what the government did was very wrong and it didn’t take not long to see what they done. Racism still happens today everywhere and it does affect everyone.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The European Union Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The European Union - Research Paper Example In these trade affairs, the six nations involved were not exposed to tariffs and quotas and hence this encouraged the trade. As time passed, the six countries involved in the trade formed an economic union. This treaty of Paris encouraged the formation of an executive council, a common assembly and a court of justice. This group of administrative bodies was limited in terms of the powers it wielded but it promoted the organization and of the European industry (Smith 26). The treaty of Paris hence laid the foundation for the formation of a stable and prosperous unified Europe. More treaties were later signed and this promoted the trade between the six countries involved as the treaties increased cooperation. The treaties that came after the formation of the treaty of Paris were called the Rome treaties and paved the way for the creation of the European Economic Community and the EURATOM. The reason for the creation of EURATOM was to allow for the usage of atomic energy in a manner tha t promoted peace. In the year 1968 after the ratification of the Merger Treaty, the European Economic Community was transformed into the European community. Development of the Union As time passed, the European community continued to assert it authority throughout Europe. At a time around 1970, the European Community had already strengthened its authority in the economies of the nations who were already in European community. Growth in the European community is evident whereby the European court of auditors was formed at a place called Luxemburg in the year 1977. The establishment of the European monetary system two years later in the year 1977 later followed this change. The two newly established organizations as part of the European community were responsible for the regulating the currencies within the member countries. They also controlled and regulated the budgets of these member countries (Merino 46). In the year 1986, the member countries in the European community had increas ed to twelve in number. Thereafter, there was the formation of the single European act. The creation of this act ensured the total and ultimate integration of the economies and that all the policies among all member nations were standardized especially on issues concerning the environment, employment and health. Among the greatest breakthroughs of the European community was the breaking down of the Berlin wall in the year 1989. This event took place in the beginning of the termination of communism in what was known as the Warsaw pact of nations (Jackson, Keller and Flood 870). The European community provided financial support to member countries that had been new acquisitions in community. This economic aid motivated nations to put effort towards creating a more stable and unified Europe by promoting international cooperation. In the year 1990, legislations and discussions led to the creation of the new European Union. The adoption of a new name also carried along some changes. Euro pean Coal and Steel Community In Europe, the European Coal and Steel Community were established under a six-nation alliance as an international organization. The ECSC Treaty was signd in 1951, in Paris and the founding members were France, the Benelux countries, Italy and Germany that came together as one community. The main purpose of the formation of this organization was the fact that it served the purpose of unifying

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Human Resource Management Program in Electronic Firm in Ontario Case Study - 1

Human Resource Management Program in Electronic Firm in Ontario - Case Study Example Evaluators are likely to dismiss or assign scores based on their liking. Third, the success rate of the test is extremely low which raises eyebrows. If only 20% are likely to pass the test then it seems like its serving a totally different purpose other than the intended. 50% success rate would be reasoning enough if the tests were valid and reliable (Gatewood, et al., 2011). Based on the above-highlighted problems reported on the selection program, a more motivating program that serves a relevant purpose should be adopted. First, the management team should devise and develop academic/mental interview questions and evaluation criteria that can assess employees in the electronic arena which is relevant to their job descriptions and not ask outrageous questions. To test for practical skills, the panel should ask the employees to perform some relevant operations using electronic equipment and replace the metal peg activity (Gatewood, et al., 2011). Also, much more transparency in the manner in which the procedure is undertaken should be enhanced such as openly printing out the results with the score criteria clearly elaborated. The union has valid arguments that can be backed up by the payment/compensation packages offered by the company. It can compare the kind of work the employees do with the remuneration. As reported, the company seeks to hire inexperienced workers so as to pay them as little as possible. Consequently, the confidentiality of the procedure is a point worth noting. The union can claim that the examinees’ results are tampered with since they are enclosed. Thirdly, the invalidity of the test questions is a strong argument to bring across as the activities asked to be performed are irrelevant to the nature of work. This is an indication that there is a hidden motive (Gatewood, et al., 2011).

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Conflict Scenario PowerPoint Presentation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Conflict Scenario - PowerPoint Presentation Example The template given to the receptionist by the doctor could be a standard template but the template given by the scheduler may not be the standard one and so the scheduler gave a patient an appointment that does not exist. This led to confusion even to the doctor. The scheduler could have reduced the whole chaos if her personal attitude would have notcome her way when discussing with the receptionist. Due her attitude she disliked to talk to the receptionist and about the issue to resolve and instead she left a blind eye on the issue, which led to all the problems. Due to this unacceptable attitude towards work by the scheduler the issue could not have escalated and could have been subsided. Typically, entry-level nursing education programs provide some basic exposure to general and basic breast cancer nursing, but little direct experience in patient care and scheduling process should be offered. Academic programs in patient care nursing are generally restricted to graduate advanced practice programs for clinical nurse specialists or nurse practitioners. The perception of understanding has a great deal to do with communication and managerial effectiveness. Since outstanding management presumes that one can influence people to be communicative, an objective analysis of your influencing capacities and the way other people see it is crucial. One way to get this kind of necessary feedback is to take an interactive and intense program to help accomplish a critical self-assessment. Examine interpersonal intangibles in that setting. Experiment with and examine the present interactive style and refine and improve it - in response to the straightforward and frank feedback that you receive. Arrange, somehow, if possible, to get out of the daily work situation into a relaxed, informal setting with a small group of other staff and executives. Talk to each other. Discover ways in which ones behavior and attitudes affect others. Put oneself in the capable hands of a qualified professional trainer. Cover this in training seminar such things as listening, communicating, leading, handling frustration and anger, asserting yourself, facing pressures, relating to colleagues, personal openness, handling stress, perceiving, respecting other people's feelings, selling your ideas to other people, and giving and receiving constructive critici sm. After getting to know each other quite well, formally and informally, near the end of the program have a major feedback session. Then the group discusses: whether or not, based on what they have got to know about you at that point, they would want you as a colleague and why or why not. Flexibility The increasing complexity of pediatric critical care has required a corresponding evolution in the sophistication of pediatric critical care nursing (PCCN). The role of the nurse in this setting is multifaceted. First, the nurse serves as a form of total systems monitor-continually examining all the physiologic monitors and treatment devices, along with the child's body. This requires the acquisition of peripheral vision. A skilful doctor learns to adjust settings on critical care equipment so it can serve as an extension of his or her own sensory system. The nurse has to perform routine maintenance activities (e.g., medication preparation, blood procurement) while

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Political changes in Europe due to the Rennaissance Essay

Political changes in Europe due to the Rennaissance - Essay Example The individual fame and development of trade and commerce became the main force that changed the political thinking and consequently the political history of Europe. Renaissance period is also known for consolidation of political power through the increased trade and commerce activities and consolidation. ‘Renaissance had brought an end for the most part to feudalism, the medieval form of political organization’ (Renaissance). The various Italian cities went for self rule and Monarchies also consolidated their position and political power through matrimonial alliances. Eminent diplomat and writer Leonardo Bruni believed in the representative form of government that was inclined towards the welfare of the society and encouraged patriotism. The period saw dramatic changes in the political, social and cultural environment of Europe that was based on scientific and cultural interpretation rather than religious orthodoxy. Discovery of new land by Vasco de Gama and Columbus greatly helped in the expansion of European power across the globe. England, France, Portugal, Italy and Germany all tried to establish their rule in far flung places like Africa, Asia and New America. The tradition of owning man as slaves was also started during the time and slaves from Africa were transported to America to be used as free thus establishing slavery. The renaissance is also known as an age of enlightenment because of the rebirth of cultural and literary supremacy of the Europe. The revolutionary political philosophy of Machiavelli is the highlight of the period who believed that the end justified the act. The decline of Roman Catholic Church can be contributed mainly to the philosophy of Bruni and Machialvelli, both of whom believed that religion and politics are two separate issues. Renaissance also saw the emergence of women in the corridor of power of the European

Monday, September 9, 2019

Account Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Account - Essay Example Return on capital employed or Return on Total assets measures the firm’s overall effectiveness in generating the profits. This ratio has gone up a little from 0.6 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2006. This increase does not signify much. The assets of the company are underutilized. Similarly return on net assets (also known as return on equity- ROE) measures the return earned on owners’ investments. Arriva Plc. earned 0.22 on equity or net assets in 2005 and 0.21 of net assets in 2006. The earnings are certainly not encouraging. Debtors’ collection period and Creditors’ payment period reflects average age of accounts receivable and accounts payable respectively. These collection and payment periods have shown a little improvement. Average collection period has come down from 47.98 days in 2005 to 46.04 in2006. Also average payment period has also come down from 95.78 days in 2005 to 82.67 days in 2005. This reflects the working capital problems or cash shortage being faced by Arriva Plc. Creditors have started doubting the company because of its dwindling liquidity position. That is why creditors have reduced the credit period. Gross profit ratio cannot be calculated as there are no trading activities involved. But the net profit ratio shows an improvement from 5.9% in 2005 to 6.06% in 2006. This is certainly an achievement despite cash crunch and difficulties in meeting short term obligations faced by Arriva Plc. during the year 2006. Finally it has been observed that Arriva Plc. is a low geared company. With complete reliance on equities Arriva Plc. is finding it difficult to mobilize funds. It is suggestible for Arriva to reconsider about capital mix. It may be beneficial to bring in more debts not only to improve working capital position but to utilize assets to their full capacity. One of the fastest growing industries in world is travel and tourism. Its financial managements assume importance as under noted issues impact the volumes and costs

Sunday, September 8, 2019

CHEMISTRY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

CHEMISTRY - Essay Example In the US, two antithyroid medications are being used, propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole, while in Europe and Asia, carbimazole which has a similar action to methimazole, is being used (Fenton 2006a). Carbimazole is converted to methimazole inside the body (Ross 2008a). The three antithyroid medications mentioned belong to the class of compounds known as thionamides and these medications inhibit thyroid hormone biosynthesis by decreasing the oxidation of iodide and iodination of tyrosine (Fenton 2006b). PTU also blocks the conversion of T4 (thyroxine) hormone to the more metabolically active T3 (triiodothyronine) hormone (MedicineNet 2005a). The chemical IUPAC name of methimazole is 1-methyl-3H-imidazole-2-thione, its chemical formula is C4H6N2S, its average molecular weight is 114.1688 g/mol, its melting point is 146 degrees Celsius, its experimental water solubility is 275g/L, and it has a half life of five to six hours (DrugBank 2007a). The following statements describe the mechanism of action of methimazole: ‘Methimazole binds to thyroid peroxidase and thereby inhibits the conversion of iodide to iodine. Thyroid peroxidase normally converts iodide to iodine (via hydrogen peroxide as a cofactor) and also catalyzes the incorporation of the resulting iodide molecule onto both the three and/or five positions of the phenol rings of tyrosines found in thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin is degraded to produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are the main hormones produced by the thyroid gland. So methimazole effectively inhibits the production of new thyroid hormones.’ The chemical IUPAC name of propylthiouracil is 6-propyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-pyrimidin-4-one, its chemical formula is C7H10N2OS, its average molecular weight is 170.2321 g/mol, its melting point is 219 Â °C, its experimental water solubility is 219 Â °C, and its half life is two hours (DrugBank 2007c). The chemical IUPAC name of carbimazole is